Base64 is a group of similar binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation. The term Base64 originates from a specific MIME content transfer encoding.
Base64 encoding schemes are commonly used when there is a need to encode binary data that needs to be stored and transferred over media that are designed to deal with ASCII. This is to ensure that the data remain intact without modification during transport. Base64 is commonly used in a number of applications including email via MIME, and storing complex data in XML.
One common application of base64 encoding on the web is to encode binary data so it can be included in a data: URL.
Note that btoa() expects to be passed binary data, and will throw an exception if the given string contains any characters whose UTF-16 representation occupies more than one byte. For more details, see the documentation for btoa().